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The analysis developed in this study is based on data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010–2011 (ECLS-K: 2010–2011), sponsored by the National Center for Education Statistics (Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education). This study will follow a nationally representative sample of children starting in their kindergarten year, through their elementary school years. ALDO Fiolla Suede Ankle Strap Dress Sandals rjQA2HJDzc
It provides information on multiple dimensions of children’s development, early learning, and progress in school, as well as information on children’s families and on teachers’ and parents’ perceptions of children’s skills and behaviors. The tracking of students over time is one of the study’s most valuable features, as is the availability of two ECLS-K studies (ECLS-K: 1998–99 and ECLS-K: 2010–2011), which will allow for cross-comparisons “of two nationally representative kindergarten classes experiencing different policy, educational, and demographic environments” (Tourangeau et al. 2013). 19

Both the outcome variables and the individual level characteristics (control variables) that are used in the analysis are described below.

For the current analysis, we focus on measurements of the child’s cognitive and noncognitive skills at the beginning of the school year (assessments were conducted from August through mid-December 2010).

The definitions that follow summarize and paraphrase the information reported by Tourangeau et al. (2013), which can be consulted for more details. See also Appendix B for a more detailed explanation of the variables used in this analysis.

These cognitive skills and executive function skills Born Rowell nilwV
are assessed with instruments that measure the child’s:

We use the term “principal” to identify a set of noncognitive skills that are measured by both the ECLS-K 1998–1999 and 2010–2011 surveys, and that have been relatively extensively used in research. We distinguish these “principal noncognitive skills” from “other noncognitive skills” described later, which, while not available in the public data from the kindergarten class of 1998–1999, are nevertheless important noncognitive skills to measure.

Teachers are asked to assess the child’s:

Parents are asked to assess the child’s:

The ECLS-K 2010–2011 includes a range of interesting measures not available in the ECLS-K 1998–1999 public data and our analysis encompasses many of these measures. Other skills reported by teachers and covered in our study include the child’s interpersonal relationships (based on items describing the child’s skill in forming and maintaining friendships; getting along with people who are different; comforting or helping other children; expressing feelings, ideas, and opinions in positive ways; and showing sensitivity to the feelings of others); closeness to the teacher (based on items that measure the affection, warmth, and open communication that the teacher experiences with the student); eagerness to learn, persistence in completing tasks, and attention (whether the child “pays attention well”).

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23. Compared with other options. These alternatives include no nonparental care arrangements; being looked after by a relative, a nonrelative, at home or outside; or a combination of options. Any finding associated with this variable may be interpreted as the association between attending prekindergarten programs, compared with other options, but must be interpreted with caution. In other words, the child may have attended a high-quality prekindergarten program, which could have been either private or public, or a low-quality one, which would have different impacts. He or she might have been placed in (non-educational) child care, either private or public, high- or low-quality, for few or many hours per day, with very different implications for his or her development (Barnett 2011; Nores and Barnett 2010; Barnett 2008; Magnuson, Ruhm, and Waldfogel 2007; Magnuson et al. 2004). For the extensive literature explaining the benefits of pre-K schooling see Camilli et al. (2010) and for a meta-analysis of results, see Duncan and Magnuson (2013).

24. These include reading books, telling stories to the child, playing games or doing puzzles, building something while playing with construction toys, singing songs with the child, helping the child with arts and crafts, talking about nature or doing science projects, practicing reading, practicing writing, working with numbers, reading picture books outside of school, and reading to or pretending to read to himself or to others outside of school (alpha 0.7605).

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To identify each gap, the race and SES variables are normally included as dummies or indicator variables representing each group of interest, which are in turn compared with a chosen reference group (white and bottom quintile/low SES group, respectively).

26. The school fixed effect is represented by in the equations in Appendix A, where s indicates the child i ’s school.

27. Alternatively, the specifications above are estimated using ordinary least squares with clustered standard errors at the school level (to account for lack of independence of observations of students who attend the same school). See Appendix B for other details on alternative estimation methods. These estimates are available upon request.

28. This statistical drawback is present in multiple sources of data, including the earlier ECLS-K study (1998–1999). Limitations associated with lack of response are well known, especially when some sort of pattern in the missing observations is suspected. Some references are Allison (2002), McKnight et al. (2007), Graham (2009).

29. The poverty variable indicates whether the household income is below 200 percent of the U.S. Census Bureau poverty threshold. More details are provided in Tourangeau et al. (2013), see pages 7-53 and 7-54.